Keywords : outbreak


Clinical Profiles and Outcome of Children Admitted with Measles During 2009 Outbreak

Hadeel Ali Aziz; Muhi Kadhem Al-Janabi; Abbas Oweid Oleiwe; Nadia Aziz Nasir

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 191-197

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Measles is a highly contagious acute viral infection. It is a common cause of morbidity and mortality constituting half of vaccine preventable diseases.
OBJECTIVE:
The study was designed to describe the demographic, vaccination status, clinical profiles, and outcome of children admitted with measles during outbreak.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A cross sectional hospital based study was conducted on 137 children admitted with measles in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital/Medical City /Baghdad during the outbreak of measles in the period from 1st January- 31st May 2009. Patients below the age of 14 years who were clinically diagnosed as cases of measles were treated and followed.
RESULTS:
The median age was 17 months with a range of 3 months-14 years. Male /female ratio of 1.14:1. 86.86 % patients were admitted in March. Sixty eight (49.63%) children were not vaccinated. Twenty four (55.81%) children of vaccinated group had one dose of measles vaccine only and 19(44.19%) children had two doses. Complications of measles were detected in 120(87.59%) of patients. The most frequent complication of measles was pneumonia which was encountered in 72(52.55%) cases. Gastroenteritis was recorded in 44(32.12%) of patients. Six patients (4.38%) died after developing complications in the form of pneumonia in five and encephalitis in one. Forty four (32.12%) cases were malnourished and majority of them 26 (59 %) cases were in the >15 months age group. Two thirds of deaths were among malnourished children. The case fatality was 4.38%.
CONCLUSION:
One third of measles infections occurred before the age of 9 months. Half of measles cases were not vaccinated. The majority of the complicated cases had occurred in the unvaccinated children. Pneumonia was found to be the most frequent complication of measles that necessitated admission. Young age, pneumonia, malnutrition, immune deficiency and non-vaccination status were significant factors related to mortality.
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Food Poisoning Outbreak in Tikrit City, Iraq, 2013: Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium were the Incriminated Pathogens

Asaad Mehdi Asaad; Faris Al Lami; Bashar Abdullatif; Ayad Kareem; Abbas Mahdi; Shaker Mahmood

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 169-175

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
On June, 22nd, 2013, Communicable Disease Control Center (CDCC) in Baghdad notified on an outbreak of Food Poisoning (FP) involving more than 100 persons attending a restaurant in Tikrit City, Salah Al Din province on21st, June.
OBJECTIVE:
to identify source, and causative agents of the outbreak.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
A case seeries study conducted on accessed cases in Tikrit and Sala Al Din hospitals. Information on basic, clinical and food item consumed were collected using a questionnaire. Environmental assessment of the restaurant using a standardized checklist and bacteriology testing of food samples, patients’ stool specimens and different specimens from food handlers were conducted.
RESULTS:
A total of 214 persons who attended the restaurant sought medical care for acute gastroenteritis; 82 (38.3%) were admitted. Only 175 patients (including 11 affected food handlers) were accessed. Main symptoms were diarrhea (92.5%), nausea (87.5%), and vomiting (84.5%). Apart of one death, all other patients recovered completely. 32% of patients’ stool samples were positive for Salmonella typhimurium, and 30% of food specimens were positive for Staphylococcus aureus, and 10% for coliform bacteria; 13 food handlers were examined and specimens of blood, urine; and stool, and under the finger nail swabs, were negative. Health inspection of the restaurant revealed unhygienic food processing and poor personal hygiene of food handlers.
CONCLUSION:
Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhimurium were the responsible pathogens. Contaminated food stuff and unhygenic foodhandlers practices were the source. Strengthening the role of health inspection, and upgrading local laboratory capacity were recommended.