Keywords : Progesterone

Serum Progesterone &CA125 Levels as an Aid in the Prediction of Ectopic &Intrauterine Pregnancy

Maha M. Al-Bayati; Manal Madany A. Qader; Jinan Hadi Salma

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 7-13

Prompt diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is a difficult dilemma, and reliable predictors for diagnosis and differentiation of ectopic pregnancy from early pregnancy miscarriage are needed.
To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum progesterone and CA-125 levels in ectopic pregnancy and early intra uterine miscarriage.
Study design: A prospective case control study
Setting: The study was carried out in the department of obstetrics and gynecology of AL-Yarmouk teaching hospital (Baghdad – Iraq) from February 2011 to February 2012
This study was carried out on sixty pregnant women in their first trimester. Twenty women diagnosed as unruptured ectopic pregnancy; treated by laparotomy ,twenty women diagnosed as inevitable miscarriage; treated by curettage and twenty women with healthy pregnancy of a comparable gestational age as control group; follow up of this group was done to ascertain uneventful pregnancy with no complications.
We compared the serum levels of progesterone and CA-125 in all groups at the time of presentation and 24h after surgical intervention in first and second groups.
There was a significant decrease in mean post operative progesterone level in women with ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage groups with significant difference (P<0.0001). The study observed that the mean level of progesterone in women with ectopic group (6.76±3.63 ng/ml) was lower than that in miscarriage group (15.17±6.01 ng/ml) and control group (17.58±4.57 ng/ml) with significant difference (P<0.0001). This study also observed that the mean level of CA-125 in women with miscarriage group (117.07±94.30 U/ml) was higher than that in ectopic group (38.11±28.79 U/ml) and control group (30.51±16.10 U/ml) with statistically significant difference (P<0.0001).
There was a significant decrease in mean level of post operative CA-125 in women with ectopic pregnancy and miscarriage groups with significant difference (P<0.0003).
Combined measurement of both serum progesterone and CA-125 can be sensitive predictors in diagnosis and differentiation of ectopic pregnancy from inevitable miscarriage and normal pregnancy.

Variation of Glucose Concentration During Different Phases of Menstrual Cycle

Maysaa Jalal Majeed

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 73-77

A woman's menstrual cycle (and accompanying hormonal changes) can cause variations in blood glucose levels. Many women may note an increase in their blood glucose after ovulation, which then decreases once menstruation starts. These changes are caused by the hormones estrogen and progesterone, which occur at higher levels before period. They influence insulin in causing blood glucose to rise. It is important to test blood glucose levels during this cycle to be certain that blood sugar variations are attributed to menstruation.
To study the effect of sex hormones (testosterone, estradiol and progesterone) on the level of glucose; as well as it may shed light on suitable dose of diabetic treatment during different phases of menstrual cycle.
This study included 50 healthy female with regular menstrual cycle aged 25-40 years (control group) and 25 diabetic type2 (well controlled) female with regular menstrual cycle aged 30-40 years. Serum fasting glucose and sex hormones (testosterone, progesterone and estradiol ) were evaluated in these two groups of patients and controls during follicular and luteal phases of sexual cycle. Colorimetric method was used in the serum glucose concentration determination, Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent assay (ELISA) was used in the determining sex hormones level.
The results of the present revealed significant increase in mean (+SD) values of serum glucose (p<0.05) and serum progesterone levels (p<0.05) with significant decrease of serum estradiol mean (+SD) values (p<0.01) in lateual phase than follicular phase of menstrual cycle of healthy women.
Similar findings were found in diabetic women who have regular menstrual cycle .Serum glucose and serum progesterone showed significant increase ,while serum estradiol showed significant decrease in the luteal phase compared with follicular phase .
No significant difference was found serum testosterone level in the above studied groups between the phases.
It was found that 22% of healthy women with regular menstrual cycle showed elevation in their serum glucose concentration during the luteal phase of their sexual cycle.
The study revealed that blood glucose level changes along the period of menstrual cycle , due to the interaction between the hormones that control menstruation (estrogen and progesterone ) and the insulin hormone

Hormonal and Immunological Disturbances in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Numman Hamed. Salih

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 1, Pages 65-70

Rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are multifactorial autoimmune diseases.
Some recent reports indicated a hormonal disturbances affected the balance between Th1 and Th2
lymphocyte response.
To investigate the immunological and hormonal disturbance in patient with rheumatoid arthritis
(RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
Serum samples, were collected from patients with RA, SLE and control, then the tests for
antinuclear antibodies, anti double strand DNA, anticardiolipin antibodies are done by using
Enzyme linked immuno assay (ELISA) method. Also, hormonal studies including estrogen,
progesterone and prolactin level are done by using the Radio immunoassay technique (RIA).
The results indicated the increasing of ANA, anti ds-DNA, and anticardiolipin antibodies. Also,
elevation in the levels of estrogen, progesterone and prolactin in patients with RA and SLE
comparing with control.
Immunological and hormonal disturbances in patients with RA and SLE were documented through
through the increasing of ANA, anti dsDNA anticardiolipin antibodies and elevation of the level of
estrogen, progesterone, and prolactin.