Keywords : Gender

Association of Serum Levels of 25 Hydroxyvitamin D and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Age and Gender Dependent Study

Abid A Thaker; Basil O Saleh; Thana I Mustafa

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2017, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 138-143

Vitamin D deficiency has been found to have an inverse relationship with the occurrence of diabetes mellitus (DM). The aims of this study were to investigate the serum levels of vitamin D in type 2 DM and to correlates the obtained values with their age and gender.
This case-control study was carried out at Al-Ramadi General Teaching Hospital, and the National Diabetes Center for Treatment and Research at Al- Mustansiriya University, Iraq, during the period from December 2014 to November 2015. It involved, 80 patients with type 2 DM, and 60 healthy subjects. Investigations included serum measurement of 25 Hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), fasting glucose, Insulin, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in all patients and controls using ELISA technique.
The median concentration of serum 25 OHD of patients with type 2 DM (15.70 ng/ ml) were significantly lower than that of healthy controls (20.27 ng/ ml, P= 0.001). The rate of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) was significantly higher in type 2(82.5%) diabetic patients than in healthy controls (48.3%, P=0.001). Type 2 diabetic patients with age of 60 years and above and female had the highest VDD compared to others, type 2 diabetic patients with age of ≥ 60 years increased the risk of having VDD by 9.8 times compared to those with age group <18 years, but still insignificant (P =0.07).
The results revealed significant deficiency of serum vitamin D in diabetic patients type 2. Supplementation of vitamin D may improve the control of this syndrome or even delay its incidence and complication.

The Role of Gender in Early Onset Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

Hasan Azeez Al-Hamadani

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2016, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 250-257

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Multiple sclerosis is now universally found to be more prevalent in women than men
The aim of the study is to clarify the role of gender in early onset multiple sclerosis
This retrospective study was conducted in the multiple sclerosis clinic archive system in the Medical City Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq. Data collection was carried out between March 2008 and March 2009. The patients diagnosed to have relapse remitting multiple sclerosis according to the revised McDonald’s diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis, and onset of disease must be before the eighteenth birthday. For each patient, the following information was gathered: age, gender, date of onset, and date of second attack, presenting symptom, and extended disability status scale and the date, and type and location of MRI lesions. A p-value <0.05 was considered the cutoff point to determine significant findings.
Forty-eight of the patients where females (62.3%) and 29 patients where males (37.7%), with a female: male ratio 1.6:1.
No significant difference was found regarding distribution of gender in each age group, and no significant difference was found when age at onset was compared between males and females, although in male patients a shift to children and a shift at adolescence in female were observed
The comparison of different radiological sites between males and females shows a significant difference with more males having infratentorial lesions compared with females (P=0.033).
No significant difference was found between the two genders regarding, age at onset the presenting symptom, mode of onset and no significant difference was found when interval between the first and second attack was compared between males and females.
Female preponderance was highest for subjects with disease onset at adolescents. No significant difference was found when age at onset was compared between males and females, although in male patients, a shift to children and a shift at adolescence in female were observed. A significant difference in the time, between first and second attack between males and females. A significant difference in the MRI findings was the finding that males had a higher incidence of infratentorial lesion than females.
KEY WORLDS: gender, multiple sclerosis.