Keywords : Risk factors


Dyslipidemia in Young Adults Aged (20-40) Years Attending Baghdad Teaching Hospital and Al-Mansour Primary Health Care Center in Baghdad City

Hamza A. Al-Sabah; Nibras H. Hussain; Dalia Tariq Ali

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2014, Volume 13, Issue 3, Pages 320-327

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Hyperlipidemia is a condition characterized by high quantities of lipids in the blood stream. Lipids include cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids. Fats and cholesterol are generally processed in the liver and carried on proteins in the blood, forming lipoproteins. Its complications include pancreatitis, atherosclerosis, coronary artery diseases and stroke.
OBJECTIVE:
Is to estimate the prevalence of hyperlipidemia in the Iraqi young adults aged 20-40 years and to shed a light on any significant association between some socio-demographic and life style variables with hyperlipidemia.
SUBJECTS & METHODS :
A cross-sectional study was conducted from the first of December 2011 to the first of June 2012.
RESULTS :
The prevalence rate of any lipid abnormality (at least one abnormality) was 75%.The prevalence rates of elevated serum total cholesterol, low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated serum triglyceride and elevated serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol were (32.5%, 38.5%, 29.5%, 30%), respectively. The prevalence rate of elevated TC/HDL ratio was 61%.
CONCLUSION :
There is a high prevalence of lipid abnormality in young adults of whom males had higher prevalence than females but the difference was not significant.The significant associated risk factors with hyperlipidemia were age, BMI, newly diagnosed or uncontrolled diabetic and hypertensive patients, cholesterol/fat rich diet and type of cooking oil.

Stroke Related Pneumonia Incidence and Possible Risk Factors

Ahmad M. Jaffer; Kassim M. Sultan; Akram Al-Mahdawi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 376-381

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
The stroke patient is at risk of developing hospital acquired infection, with the lungs being especially vulnerable. Stroke associated pneumonia (SAP) occurring after two days of admission and is the most nosocomial infection seen in the medical wards , pneumonia is the major cause of morbidity and mortality after stroke .The establishment of an accurate diagnosis of stroke associated pneumonia remains problematic and yet there is still no accepted "gold standard" for diagnosis.
OBJECTIVE:
To determine the incidence and risk factors of stroke associated pneumonia.
METHODS:
This is prospective cohort study for 82 stroke patients admitted to medical wards .The study conduct from the 1st July 2009 to the 10th January 2010. Initially stroke diagnosed clinically and by CT scan. Theses cases are assessed after 48 hours after admission, full history, physical examination and investigations were done using clinical criteria (body temperature, WBC count and chest radiography ) for diagnosis of pneumonia.
RESULTS:
11(13.4%) patients developed stroke associated pneumonia from 82 stroke patients admitted to medical wards. Most patients who were developed pneumonia were older than patients who did not developed pneumonia . The incidence is higher in patient with infarction and older age groups than patients with hemorrhagic stroke and younger age groups, and there is no association between the disease and gender .The incidence of late onset is more common than early onset pneumonia. Presence of dysphagia was present in (81.8%) nasogastric tube in (72.7% ),unconsciousness(54.5%),tobacco ,vomiting (36.6%) and fit (27.2%) were found as an important risk factors .The mortality more in hemorrhagic(75%) than thrombotic stroke (14.3%).
CONCLUSION:
stroke associated pneumonia is an important cause of mortality. It is associated with older age, dysphagia , NG intubation ,coma ,vomiting and fit .Simple assessment of these variables could be used to identify patients at high risk of developing pneumonia after stroke.

Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus Infection Among Premarital People in Sulaimani Governorate

Mohammed Omer Mohammed

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 0, Pages 535-641

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
The magnitude of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) varies substantially between the countries. Previous study in Sulaimani revealed that 2.3% of blood donors were positive for HBsAg.
A better understanding of incidence and/ or prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors provides insight into the transmission of this infection in the community.
Transmission of hepatitis B virus results from exposure to infectious blood or body fluids containing the virus. Possible forms of transmission include unprotected sexual contact, blood transfusions, re-use of contaminated needles, and vertical transmission from mother to child during childbirth.
OBJECTIVE:
To know the prevalence of HBsAg among premarital people in Sulaimani governorate, and to identify the associated risk factors responsible for seropositivity.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
This prospective study was conducted in the premarital consultation clinic in Sulaimani city from November 2008 to February 2009, 1500 premarital people(750 males,750 females) from age 18 years and above of either sex.
RESULTS:
The prevalence of HBsAg among premarital people was 0.67%. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with an increased HBsAg risk were occupation, history of surgical operation, blood transfusion and tattooing.
CONCLUSION:
The prevalence of HBsAg among premarital people in Sulaimani province is lower than that previously reported, with male predominance. A positive relationship between HBsAg with occupation, history of surgical operation, blood transfusion and tattooing was reported.

Risk Factors & Clinical Patterns of Cerebral Palsy in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital in Baghdad

Mahjoob N. AL-Naddawi; Nebal Waill Saadi; Aseel Rasheed Abid

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 284-292

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of posture , movement & tone due to a static encephalopathy acquired during brain growth in fetal life, infancy or early childhood.
OBJECTIVE:
To identify the risk factors of CP & its clinical patterns.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
This case control study was done from the 1st of January 2009 to the end of September 2009, on 100 patients with CP who attended the neurology clinic or have been admitted to the neurology ward in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital in Medical City complex, Baghdad. For comparative purposes,100 control individuals matched for sex & age were selected. Some of those patients were referred to pediatric clinic & registered with a diagnosis of CP & some of them were brought by the parents or caregivers without referral for various complaints, then we reviewed their full history & examination ( mainly neurological ) to confirm the diagnosis of CP. A specially designed questionnaire form was used .
RESULTS:
Out of 100 patients with cerebral palsy, male:female ratio was (1.3:1), 89% of the patients were born at term whereas 11% were preterm. Those patients were found to have history of normal vaginal delivery in 70%, with one patient only delivered by assisted delivery, while 29% of them delivered by caesarean section mode of delivery. History of intrauterine growth retardation found in 21% patients, 4% were twin. The mothers of those patients had history of pre-eclampsia in 8% of the cases, regular antenatal care in 65%, history of antipartum haemorrhage in 4%, premature rupture of membrane in 13%. Abnormal presentation was found in 8%, cord prolapse in 4%, neonatal jaundice in 62%, neonatal seizure in 8%, history of head trauma in 4% & history of central nervous system infection in 20%. Spastic CP was the commonest type (67%), while mixed and atonic CP were the least type (1% for each). Quadriplegic CP was the commonest topographical subtype (56%). Delayed social milestone was found in 46% , speech difficulty in 94% , deafness in 2% , ocular problem in 29% , seizure in 58% & all of them had delayed milestone & weakness.
CONCLUSION:
Neonatal convulsion, neonatal jaundice, neonatal infection, antepartum hemorrhage & head trauma are significant risk factors for cerebral palsy while precipitate labour, caesarean section, twins, toxemia, breech delivery, low birth weight & cord prolapse were not found to be significantly associated with cerebral palsy. The most common clinical pattern of CP was spastic quadriplegic CP

Risk Factors For Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Bronchiolitis in Children. A hospital Based Study

Muneera Fadhil Rida

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 305-310

ABSTRACT :
BACKGROUND:
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), historically being the major causative agent. RSV causes respiratory disease in young children worldwide and by the age of two years most children have been infected.
OBJECTIVE:
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of passive smoking alone and in conjunction with breastfeeding and Crowding index and Family history of atopy in determining the risk of bronchitis in Children under of 5 years of age .
METHODS:
We studied 100 consecutive Children aged from (1)day to (60)months (56boys and 44 girls),median age 30 months, who required hospital admission for acute bronchiolitis at the Pediatric Department ,Children Welfare teaching hospital ,medical city complex - Baghdad.
The cases were compared with 100 patients at the same age groups with no history of Bronchilolitis .The following parameters was studied in both groups: Exposure to passive smoking, type of feeding (Breast, Bottle, and Mixed), Family history of atopy, and crowding index.
RESULTS:
High level of exposure to passive smoking on the other hand significantly increase the risk of having bronchiolitis by (2.3) times compared to those with negative exposure. Breast feeding significantly decrease the risk of having bronchiolitis by 5 times compared to those on mixed and bottle feeding.
A positive family history of atopy significantly increase the risk of bronchiolitis by (9.5 )times . Subjects with moderately high crowding index (interquartile range )has 6.3 times of having increase the risk of bronchiolitis compared to those of living in uncroweded residence (first quartile crowding index).Highly crowding index (forth quartile)significantly increase the risk by 101 times compared to the those in un crowded (first quartile )residence.
CONCLUSION:
Although Smoking , Lack of Breast feeding and family history of atopy are important risk factors for RSV bronchiolitis But Crowding seems to be the most important risks factors for RSV bronchiolitis in this study.

Risk Factors of Small for Gestational Age Newborn Babies

Numan Nafie Hameed; Munib Ahmed ALZubaidi; Sajjad H.Kadhim

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 54-60

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
The most common definition of Small for gestational age (SGA) newborns refers to a birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Intrauterine growth retardation(IUGR) may be caused by maternal, placental, or fetal factors. However, no underlying etiology can be identified in at least 40 % of SGA infants.
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the risk factors of SGA births in a sample of Iraqi term newborns.
PATIENTS& METHODS:
A case control study extended over eight months from Dec. first 2007 to July 31st, 2008 . In this study, 100 SGA newborns &100 control newborns evaluated within the first day of life.
This study was performed in delivery rooms &neonatal special care birth unit in Baghdad Teaching Hospital in Medical City . Data were collected by direct interview of the mothers. Data included different variables related to mothers & neonates.
RESULTS:
There was a significant relationship between SGA births & maternal urinary tract infections (OR=5.231, P<0.0001) & with antepartum hemorrhage (8.6 time risk ,0R=8.609, P=0.0349).
The majority of SGA newborns(15%) occurred in multiple pregnancies (OR=17.471, P=0.0003). SGA newborns were more common among non employed mothers (OR=2.100, P=0.0355).
Also SGA newborns had significant relationships with mothers not attended antenatal care (OR=3.648, P=0.0001),those with maternal history of SGA births (OR=15.474, P<0.0001) , those mothers with anemia (OR=5.532, P<0.0001) & lastly with mothers suffering from hypertension (OR=8.877, P<0.0001).
CONCLUSION:
There was significant relationship between SGA births and :Multiple pregnancies& maternal history of SGA births, mothers suffering from hypertension& maternal history of APH and maternal anemia& UTI, mother not attended antenatal clinic & with no employment.

Risk Factors of Bronchial Ahtma in Children … A Hospital Based Study

Nadia A. Nasir; Mahmoud Shebab; Nebal Waill; Sadiq J. Alhammash; Muhi K. Aljanabi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 6-9

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND :
Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways with intermittent bronchospasm. Bronchial asthma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. There are many identifiable risk factors contributing to both the expression and persistence of asthma .
OBJECTIVE:
This study threw a light on some of the risk factors of bronchial asthma in childhood.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
This study was performed to determine some of the risk factors of childhood asthma in 62 asthmatic children admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital in Baghdad Medical City in the period from 1st February to 1st July 2007 . The control group was composed of 108 age and sex matched children attending the outpatient clinic with non pulmonary health problems .
RESULTS :
Forty two ( 67.7%) asthmatic children were males and 20(32.2%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.1:1 . Fifty two(83.8%) suffered from bronchial asthma before the age of 3 years , While 10(16.2%) acquired the disease after this age . A positive family history of asthma was positive in 31(50%) asthmatic children compared to 9 (8.33%) in the control group , scoring a highly significant association. A positive family history of allergic rhinitis (27.41%) in asthmatic children was more often recorded than in the control group (21.29%) but the difference was not statistically significant . A highly significant association between a positive history of smoking at home environment and childhood bronchial asthma was detected , where it was found positive in 50(80.6%)asthmatic children and in 55(50.9%) controls . A low crowding index ( ≤ 3 persons /room) was recorded in 52 (83.9%)asthmatics compared to 72 (66.6%) controls , Scoring a significant association between low home density and childhood bronchial asthma.
CONCLUSION:
The present study concludes certain risk factors being associated with asthma namely positive family history of asthma , passive smoking and low crowding index. The study recommends avoidance of smoking at home where a child with a positive history of these risk factors resides .