Keywords : diabetic nephropathy

Value of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in the Assessment of Renal Insufficiency in Diabetic Patients

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2019, Volume 18, Issue 3, Pages 197-203

diabetic nephropathy is being recognized as a worldwide public problem with high cost and poor
outcomes, there is increase in the incidence and prevalence of renal failure all over the world.
Functional renal imaging methods such as diffusion- weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI),
has been shown to be a promising technique in the evaluation of renal function
To study the value of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the detection and evaluation of
diabetic nephropathy, correlating these values with the clinical stage of diabetic nephropathy and to
compare these findings with diabetic patient without nephropathy.
A cross sectional analytic study was conducted in MRI unit of Radiology department at Al-Imamein
Al-Kadhimyain medical city through period form 1st oct.2017 to 30 of July 2018, 80 diabetic
patients were classified according to GFR into two groups; group I 40 patients (diabetic patient with
no nephropathy) group II 40 patients (diabetic patients with nephropathy). DWI ( b value ,0 and
1000 s/mm2) was performed in two group of the study . The mean ADC value of renal cortex was
calculated from three regions positioned in the upper, mid and lower third of the kidney.
The Relationship between ADC value and stage of diabetic nephropathy were assessed.
In comparing diabetic patients (with no nephropathy) with patient with diabetic nephropathy, there
was significant decline in mean ADC value among patients with advanced stages of diabetic
nephropathy(p< 0.001). The mean ADC value with diabetic nephropathy was significantly lower
among patients with type I DM (P<0.001).
The magnetic resonance imaging-apparent diffusion coefficient value is an appropriate method for
assessment and evaluation of diabetic nephropathy and is a reliable diagnostic tool for

Long Term Complications of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Young Adults

Munib Ahmed Alzubaidi; Esraa Majid Mutashar; Numan Nafie Hameed

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 21-24

Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic syndrome characterized by impaired metabolism of glucose; morbidity and mortality come from acute metabolic derangement and from long term complications that affect small and large vessels.
The assessment of the long term complications of diabetes mellitus in children and young adults
The study included 150 patients with type1 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetic clinic of Children Welfare Teaching Hospital who were assessed for the presence of long term complications of diabetes mellitus.
The total number of the sample was 150 patients with male to female ratio of 1:1.2 with median age of 12.2 years.
Long term complications occurred in 26.7% of patients; (75%) of them had diabetes for more than 5 years. These complications include eye complications (retinopathy and cataract) 12.6%, Renal complications (albuminuria, oedema, and hypertension) 10.6%, peripheral neuropathy 4.6%, limited joint mobility 6.6%, and short stature 17.3%.
Long term complications were found in significant number of patients with type I diabetes mellitus which can occur in children with short duration of diabetes, and their frequency increases significantly with increasing duration of diabetes.

Role of Antioxidant on Nephropathy in Alloxan Induced Diabetes in Rabbits

Israa F. Jaffar Alsamaraee; Huda Arif Jasim

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 398-402

The development and progression of diabetic nephropathy is dependent on glucose homeostasis and many other contributing factors. Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of end-stage renal failure, accounting for 35 to 40% of all new cases that require dialysis therapy worldwide. Recent clinical studies clearly demonstrated that hyperglycemia and oxidative stress is an important causal factor in mediating the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease.
To evaluate the therapeutic effect of levamesole in diabetic nephropathy .
The study included 10 rabbits Weight (1kg ±20 gm); they were followed up for 7months. Blood was aspirated from marginal ear vein after agitation with xylol for estimation of fasting blood glucose and malondialdehyde (MDA) which is used as marker of oxidative stress. Rabbits were given 110 mg / kg alloxan to induce diabetes. In the second month rabbits became diabetic without development of nephropathy. After 1 month from being diabetic a bosture dose of alloxan was given (125 mgkg). After 1 month of the bosture dose blood glucose level further increased and rabbits developed albumin urea. Once rabbits developed albumin urea they received levamesole 2 mgkg EOD for 6 weeks.
The study results showed that diabetic nephropathy is associated with high blood glucose level (300-400mgdl) and oxidative stress (significant increase in MDA level). The nephropathy (albumin urea) and oxidative stress can be reversed by levamesole.
The antioxidant effect and immune modulating properties of levamesole provided a protective therapy against the development of diabetic nephropathy.
KEY WORDS: diabetic nephropathy, levamesole, MDA.