Keywords : risk factors

Frequency of Ketoacidosis and Associated Risk Factors at the Onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Children and Adolescents

Nadia Sattay Hassoon; Najla I Ayoub

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 302-309
DOI: 10.52573/ipmj.2020.169739

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is the most serious acute Complication of type 1diabetes mellitus and  the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children. It still carries high incidence rate at time of diagnosis.
Study design: Hospital-based cross-sectional observational study conducted at Children Welfare Teaching Hospital /Medical City /Baghdad; including the admitted patients in ER.
To identify the frequency of ketoacidosis and associated risk factors at the onset of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in children and adolescents.
The demographic, clinical manifestation, laboratory data of 69 patients presented with DKA at the disease onset out of total 144 patients who were diagnosed as Type 1Diabetes Mellitus; during a one-year period from 1st of September 2017 to 31th of August 2018. Age distribution was categorized into three groups: 1- 5 years, <5 years, >10 years. DKA was defined as blood glucose ≥200 mg/ dl; blood PH < 7.3; associated with ketonuria and glucosuria.
Of 69/144 patients (47.9%) presented with diabetic ketoacidosis at disease onset; 41 patients (59.4%) were females which was significant (P value 0.045); Mean age at diagnosis was 7.5± 3.4 years: with highest frequency (43.5%) in age group >5 years but (50%) of severe DKA patients were involved in younger age group ≤ 5 years. Family history of diabetes was found in 11 (15.9%) patients. Majority of primary caregivers had a low academic achievement just14 (20.3%) of them had higher education. 
The frequency of childhood DKA at the disease onset was still high. Girls had a higher rate of occurrence. Younger age is associated with more severe DKA. Family history of diabetes and education level of the parents did not affect the frequency of DKA.

Seasonal Variations of Lipid Profile

Noor Falih Ahmed; Azher Sebieh

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2021, Volume 20, Issue 2, Pages 149-154
DOI: 10.52573/ipmj.2020.168623

Cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders have been the most prevalent cause of death and morbidity in the world over the last decades. Seasonal differences in blood lipids have recently raised interest in this area of lipid metabolism. In the current study
To determined if changes in weather having effect on lipid profile readings
Eighty five subjects, forty males and fort five females were included with age range of (22-85) years. Two serum samples were investigated in hospital lab for lipid profile for every participant from outpatient clinic/Baghdad teaching hospital, in 12 months’ period. Other clinical data and some modifiable risk factors were also obtained.
The results showed that a significant increase in winter was shown in LDL and total cholesterol among males only (P value 0.011, and 0.012), respectively, but no changes in HDL, triglyceride and LDL/HDL were found. Systolic blood pressure was also found increased in winter significantly (P=0.008), while diastolic pressure, FBS and BMI did not change significantly.
The present study concludes that there are significant changes of lipid parameter in male sex may affect assessment of risk of cardiovascular disease.

Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in Al- Elwiya Maternity Teaching Hospital in Baghdad

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2020, Volume 19, Issue 3, Pages 226-230

Low birth weight as a public health indicator and determinant of perinatal mortality should always
be monitored. Attempts to trace possible risk factors and prevalence of low birth weight should not
be wasted.
Finding the prevalence of low birth weight in Al-Elwiya maternity teaching hospital in Baghdad in
2011 and 2012 and studying risk factors associated with a sample of low weight neonates born in
the hospital.
Prevalence of low birth weight in Al-Elwiya maternity teaching hospital in 2011 and 2012 was
obtained through reviewing data registered in the hospital′s medical statistics unit and inpatient
medical records unit, while risk factors were traced through conducting a case control comparison
by collecting 100 cases and similar number of controls using direct interview questionnaire with
the mothers who laboured in the hospital.
The calculated prevalence of low birth weight in Al Elwiya hospital was slightly higher than
the national figure, and the risk factors found statistically significant for low birth weight were;
multiparty, anaemia, urinary tract infection, chest infection, passive smoking and level of education.
While age, antepartum haemorrhage and pregnancy induced hypertension found insignificant.
Prevalence of low birth weight in the hospital is slightly higher than the national figure although
the latter was not published, all factors affecting birth weight were controllable.