Keywords : computed tomography


Prevalence of CT Scan Findings in Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury with Respect to Glasgow Coma Scale

Ihssan Subhi Nema; Yasir Mohammed Hamandi; Hashim Hassan Abed; Wasan Ismail Majeed Al-Saadi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2016, Volume 15, Issue 3, Pages 259-265

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) contribute to a significant mortality and substantial morbidity. CT is
essential for identifying lesions requiring urgent intervention & those that require observation and
non surgical management .
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the prevalence of CT findings with respect to the severity of TBI & to find out the
relation between the age of the patient & the severity of TBI.
PATIENTS AND METHODS:
100 patients with TBI evaluated by brain CT. All age groups with Glasgow coma scale (GCS) of
less than 15 were included.The abnormal CT findings were evaluated & recorded. The findings were
further correlated with the patient`s age & the GCS score
RESULTS:
Eighty percent of the cases had mild TBI, 6% had moderate TBI and 14% had severe TBI. Ninety
three percent had closed type of injury . Twenty four percent of the patients had normal CT scan ,
all of them had mild TBI . The most common CT findings in mild TBI cases were subgalial
haematoma(SGH) & calvarial skull fracture, with minority of cases had cerebral contusion , fracture
base of skull , diffuse cerebral oedema & intracranial haemorrhage . Two third of patients with
moderate TBI had subarachnoid haemorrhage(SAH) & cerebral contusion, 50% had diffuse
cerebral oedema, calvarial skull fracture,& 1/3 had Subdural haematoma & fracture base of skull.
More than half of patients with severe TBI had calvarial skull fracture, fracture base of skull,
cerebral contusion, SAH, with lower prevalence of diffuse cerebral oedema,and intracranial
haemorrhage.
CONCLUSION:
The lower the GCS score, the more significant CT findings,predominantly fracture base of skull,
subarachnoid haemorrhage and diffuse cerebral oedema.
KEY WORDS: traumatic brain injury, computed tomography, glasgow coma scale.

Computed Tomography Performance in Renal Cystic Diseases

Haider Qasim Hamood

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 368-374

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Renal cysts represent notably dilated nephrons or collecting ducts. A cystic kidney is a kidney with three or more cysts. The accuracy of CT diagnosis of typical simple renal cyst approaches 100% but many renal cysts do not fulfill the criteria for simple renal cyst, such lesions vary from simple renal cysts which do not require surgery to renal neoplasms with cystic component that need surgical resection. Contrast-enhanced helical CT scanning has 96% sensitivity and 95% specificity in detecting carcinoma in acquired renal cystic diseases.
AIM OF STUDY:
To confirm the sensitivity, specificity and performance of the spiral computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis and evaluation of the renal cysts and to study the CT criteria which categorize and separate the renal cystic lesions that require surgery (malignant neoplasm) from those that do not.
METHODS:
Fifty patients were scanned with spiral CT, 22 of them were males and 28 were females, their ages ranging from 20-70 years with mean age 50 yeas old, these patients undergo CT examinations with and without contrast enhancing material. All the patients were proved to have renal cysts radiologically and symptomatically.
RESULTS:
The patients presented with cortical simple renal cysts were 16 patients (32% of all the cases). Medullary simple renal cyst were found in 9 patients (18% of the total number of cases). 3 patients presented with autosomal recessive and dominant poly cystic kidney disease (8% of total cases). 1 case found with cystic kidney associated with tuberous sclerosis (2% of total cases). Para-pelvic renal cysts are seen in 7 patients (14% of total cases). Cystic angiomyolipoma (fat density) are seen in 3 patients (6% of total cases). Acquired renal cystic disease is found in 1 patient (2% of total cases). Complicated renal cysts (hemorrhagic) are seen in 2 patients (4% of total cases). Medullary cystic diseases were found in 2 patients ( 4% of total cases). Multicystic dysplastic kidney was found in 1 patient (2% of total cases). Malignant Cystic kidney lesion (cystic renal cell carcinoma) was found in 1 patient (2% of total cases). Females are more affected than the male, 28 females (56%) while the affected males were 22 (44%). The more involved age group was between 50-59 years old, they were 15 patients (9males and 6 females). The left kidney (34%) is more involved than the right kidney (32%), while both kidneys were involved in (34%) of the cases.
CONCLUSION:
The spiral CT scan is the most sensitive imaging modality useful in diagnosis of cystic kidney and it is of valuable importance in evaluation and categorization of cystic renal masses in attempt to separate the lesions that require surgical resection from those do not

The Value of Spiral Computed Tomography in Diagnosis of Renal Mass Lesions

Sahar Basim Ahmed; Saad Hatem Al-Samarrai

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 301-308

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
This prospective study was done in spiral CT units at Al-Yarmook teaching hospital & Al-Kadhmia teaching hospital , in the period from October 2005 to October 2007, 40 Patients with renal masses were examined
OBJECTIVE:
To evaluate the role of spiral CT in the diagnosis of renal mass lesion. Agreement between spiral CT with histopathology in diagnosis of renal masses by spiral computed tomography.
PATIENTS & METHODS :
Forty patients with renal masses were referred to spiral CT examination , they were referred from urology department . The final diagnosis of most cases was confirmed by surgery and histopathology in (36) cases. The patients ages ranged from (3-79) years. Data collection regarding age, sex, occupation, history of cigarette smoking, history of renal stones, clinical presentation, past history, family history of renal disease, history of trauma and previous history of hospital admission were made.
RESULTS:
The most common age group affected was (50-59) most frequently Presenting symptom was haematuria .
The sensitivity 76.9%, specifity 97%, PPV 78%, NPV 96.4% and accuracy of CT in diagnosis of renal masses was 96%.
CONCLUSION:
This study shows that CT is highly specific and accurate for diagnosis of renal masses and especially the renal cell carcinoma,which is the most common tumor detected in this study