Keywords : prevalence

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Congenital Anomalies in Mosul City

Zhraa Abd-Alkader Taboo

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 4, Pages 458-470

Congenital anomalies define as abnormalities of body structure that originated before birth, about 3% of all children are born with a serious structural defect that interferes with normal body function and can lead to lifelong handicap or even early death. There is a variation in the frequency of congenital anomalies in different populations.
To determine the prevalence of the easily identifiable congenital anomalies also to estimate the risk factors which may predispose to anomalies and pattern of distribution of congenital anomalies of newborn in Mosul city.
In a cross-sectional study, charts of forty six thousand and seven hundred seventy five deliveries including live births and stillbirths in Al-Batool Teaching Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology , during the period from January -2009 to December-2010. The anomalies were then grouped according to the organ, system involvement, gender, maternal age, consanguinity, mortality rate, and mother’s natal history.
A total of 323 cases of fetal congenital anomalies were detected, central nervous system were the most common abnormalities while complex congenital malformation was second in rank. The prevalence of anomalies was 0.69%. The majority of fetal malformation was seen in primigravida furthermore the maternal age between20-24years was the largest age group that had congenital anomalies. Mean gestational age at delivery was 36 weeks as well as the mean gestational age at diagnosis of anomaly by ultrasound was 30week. Fetal malformations had predilection to female fetuses, with male to female ratio1:1.09, in addition to 2.167% of ambigunity. Overall perinatal mortality rate was 79.25%.
Congenital anomalies are one of the most important causes of fetal deaths. The present study showed a high incidence of congenital malformations in the young age group and among primi gravida woman. The commonest associated risk factors was consanguineous marriage the frequency of which may be reduced by creating awareness regarding the avoidance of consanguineous marriages . anencephaly was the most prevalent anomaly detected. So proper and timely counseling, regular antenatal care. folate supplementation especially during the most sensitive period of embryogenesis is essential to avoid major congenital malformation for future pregnancy.

Microbiological Profile of Neonatal Septicemia

Sinan Abdulrazzaq Ibrahim

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2012, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 13-18

Neonatal septicemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries.
The study is to determine the prevalence , the pattern of organisms and the mortality of neonatal
septicemia in a neonatal care unit.
All the cases of neonatal septicemia diagnosed and treated in the neonatal care unit at al-kadimiya
teaching hospital for the period january-june 2010 were included in this study. The collected data
were : Gender, Birth weight, Gestational age, Onset of sepsis, Place of delivery and Outcome of
Out of 589 newborns admitted, 73(12.4%) were confirmed cases of neonatal septicemia. The
mortality from neonatal sepsis was 16.4%.Low birth weight and prematurity were independent
factors associated with death (P value=0.004 and 0.020 respectively).There were 24 cases (32.9%)
of early onset sepsis and 49 cases (67.1%) cases of late onset sepsis. The most common pathogens
were gram- negative bacilli causing early-onset sepsis (54%) and late onset sepsis (59%). Only 6
cases out of the total 73 cases of neonatal septicemia were caused by staphylococus aureus (8.2%) .
Over 50% of gram-negative bacilli are antibiotic resistant.
The high rate of gram-negative septicemia and the antibiotic resistance to both ampicillin and
gentamycin indicate that the infection was most probably nosocomial in origin.