Keywords : schizophrenia


Nicotine Dependence among a Group of Iraqi Schizophrenic Patients

Twana Abdulrahman Rahim; Asma Subhe Muhyadin

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 89-94

ABSTRACT:
BACKGROUND:
Substance dependence frequently co-occurs with psychiatric morbidities. Among substances, nicotine found to be the commonest substance of abuse among schizophrenic patients.
OBJECTIVE:
To assess the association of nicotine dependence with Schizophrenia.
METHOD:
112 schizophrenic patients and 374 non-schizophrenic patients were invited to answer a standard clinical/demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire on nicotine dependence (modified Fagerstrom Tolerance Questionnaire (mFTQ)).
RESULTS:
The rate of nicotine dependence was significantly higher among schizophrenic patients (44.64%) than non-schizophrenic patients (23.52%) (P < 0.000). Male smokers outnumbered female smoker (P < 0.000) in both groups. Male gender was a significant predictor for smoking among both groups of patients (OR = 55.878; P = 0.000 for schizophrenic patients; OR = 9.489; P = 0.000 for non-schizophrenic patients). Increase in age was significant predictor for nicotine smoking in general (OR = 1.032; P = 0.001), and among the schizophrenic group (OR = 1.116; P = 0.000), whereas, it was not a significant predictor for nicotine smoking among non-schizophrenic patients (OR = 1.014; P = 0.185). Whole sample patients start nicotine smoking before their psychiatric disorders onset (3.3 and 7.7 years earlier respectively) (P = 0.01). Both groups were highly nicotine dependents (mean mFTQ = 9.92 for schizophrenic patients; mean mFTQ = 8.54 for non-schizophrenic patients) (P = 0.02).
CONCLUSION:
The rate and severity of nicotine dependence were higher among patients with schizophrenia than non-schizophrenic patients. Gender and age were significant predictors for nicotine smoking in whole psychiatric patients. Both groups started their smoking habit before their psychiatric morbidity onsets.