Keywords : Iraq

Demographic and Pathological Study in a Sample of Bronchogenic Carcinoma Patients in Baghdad Teaching Hospital , During 2006-2008

Hamza Abdullah Al Sabah; Mustafa Ahmed Kattaa; Abdulla Janger Alfarttoosi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2015, Volume 14, Issue 1, Pages 28-37

The incidence of Lung cancer is increasing rapidly throughout developing countries. Lung cancer is the most commonly occurring cancer in men and the fifth in women.
To study the demographical and pathological profile of lung cancer among sample of Iraqi patients.
A retrospective descriptive study depending on review of records of diagnosed patients during 2006 - 2008.This study was conducted at the Baghdad teaching hospital, Baghdad-Iraq, during a period from 1st March 2012 to 1st January 2013.A total of 284 patients’ records all with proven lung cancer were selected retrospectively, reviewed and checked.
There were 284 patients recruited in this study, the overall mean age was (62.1 ± 12.8) years and range was (18 – 100) years. Smokers were 232 (81.7%), Non-smokers were 32 (11.3 %) and Ex-smokers were 20 (7%). All cases had cough, almost (93%) chest pain, (88.4%) presented with shortness of breath..
Regarding the types of carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma was present in 112 patients (39.4%), adenocarcinoma in 96 patients (33.8%), small cell carcinoma in 41 patients (14.5%), while large cell carcinoma in 31 patients (10.9%), and undifferentiated carcinoma was present in 4 patients (1.5%).
Regarding treatment for lung cancer among study groups, it had been noticed that 166 patients (58.5%) were subjected to chemotherapy, 115 patients (40.4%) were subjected to radiotherapy and only 3 patients (1.1%) were treated surgically.
Lung cancer is more common among males and more frequent among those aged 50 years or more. The study demostrate that Sequamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of primary lung cancer in Iraqi patients (39.4%), adenocarcinoma is the second common type (33.8%). The five year survival was very low, only (0.4%) survive for five years after diagnosis, the majority of cases died within two years.

Changes in Personality and Mood profile of Women with Toxoplasmosis

Mohamed A. Hassan; Nibras S. Abdul Aziz; Jawad K. Al-Diwan; Eman Al-Kaseer; Mushtaq T. Hashism

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2011, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 249-252

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Acquired T. gondii infection of immunocompetent patients may cause central nervous system manifestations (Gullain-Bare syndrome or brain abscess) and may be associated with psychiatric manifestation. Iraq is highly endemic with T. gondii, however, publications on psychiatric manifestation of T. gondii infection are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate psychiatric manjfestations in women with Toxoplasmosis. METHODS: A total of 68 toxoplasma positive pregnant women and 68 toxoplasma negative pregnant women were included in this study. It was conducted for the period of 5th Aug. 2008 to 28th Feb. 2009. ELISA was used to diagnose T. gondii. Questionnaire was used to diagnose personality type and depression was used. The diagnosis was according to ICD10 and DSM-IV. RESULTS: Rates of pseudpsychopathic and limbic personality epilepsy syndrome were significantly high among toxoplasmosis positive pregnant women. Significant high rate of depression was associated with acquired T. gonii infection. CONCLUSION: These findings might provide evidence supporting role of T. gondii infection in the onset of some behavioral disorders.

Substance Abuse and Dependence : In the Records of the Iraqi Hospitals and Health Centers During the Year 2008

Mushtaq Talib; Nesif Al-Hemiary

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 206-209

Substance abuse is expected to be a growing problem in Iraq after 2003. Hospitals and health center’s records can provide valuable information about this problem.
To know the number of substance abuse cases presented to our health services during 2008, to explore the socio-demographic characteristics of patients and types of substance use, and to compare the results with those of 2001,2002, and 2007.
The records of substance abuse that are periodically sent from hospitals and health centers to the Ministry of Health were studied. Records of 2008 were studied in details and compared with the figures recorded in the years 2001, 2002, and 2007 to have an idea about the progress of the problem of substance abuse before and after 2003.
There was 1462 cases recorded in 2008. Males were much more than females (96.4% vs. 3.6%), most cases were above the age of 18 years of age (95.8%). Most cases (87.5%) were presented to the outpatient clinics rather than to inpatient units. Prescription drug abuse was the most common type (74.6%). There was no increase in cases recorded before and after in 2003.
This study may indicate that the size of substance abuse related health problems in Iraq is small or is underreported. The socio-demographic pattern is similar to what was found by other studies in Iraq

How to Decrease the Prevalence of Hepatitis C in Iraqi Hemodialysis Patients

Omar Salem Khattab

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2010, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 31-35

Hepatitis C virus infection has been recognized as an emerging problem in dialysis patients, its prevalence varies considerably among different areas of the world. The prevalence of HCV infection in hemodialysis patients and its associated risk factors is not well documented in our country. We performed this study aiming to discuss prevention of further transmission of HCV infection among our patients.
We performed this study aiming to discuss prevention of further transmission of HCV infection among our patients.
A cross sectional study done between September 2003 – December 2008 in the Renal Transplant Center, Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad. Including 244 patients with end stage renal failure and had been on hemodialysis for more than 3 months. focusing on the prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients, and the associated risk factors.
153(62.7%) were males, and 91(37.3%) were females, with age range 14-67 years. The prevalence of anti-HCV positive patients was 12(4.9%), dialysis in different centers, female sex, ≥ 60 years age, ≤ 6 months on dialysis, blood transfusion, and < 9 hours per week haemodialysis were significant predictors of anti-HCV positivity.
We conclude that adherence to universal infection precautions; HCV screening of transfusions and of patients on hemodialysis; and the use of separate machines in separate rooms for those who are anti-HCV positive, was important factors, To further reduce the prevalence in our patients, erythropoietin should replace blood transfusions, also to test for HCV RNA using polymerase chain reaction before starting hemodialysis.

Psychiatric Disorders in Cardiac Patients

Basil N. Saeed

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2009, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 85-89

Psychiatric disorders and coronary heart disease are not uncommonly seen together in the same patient especially in association with myocardial infarction these disorders vary from simple anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, adjustment disorder.
Studying the depressive disorders in the Iraqi cardiac patients and its prevalence after April 2003. and trying to ascertain any mispractice in management of such patients by ignoring the psychiatric cause.
260 patients admitted to Baghdad teaching hospital medical departments over the period December 2005- October 2007. Those patients were having cither stable angina unstable angina and myocardial infraction. A uniform questionnaire was used for all patients to find out the prevalence any psychiatric disorders.
This study showed the presence of depression during the pre and post cardiac events in 70 cases (27%) anxiety was also a very common problem in about 60 cases (23%), however the percentage of patients whom were had psychiatric disorders after an acute events due to un settled security in the country since 2003 were as follow depression (21% cases 8%) from the total number of cases respectively.
Psychiatric disorders are becoming a common problem in many Iraqi cardiac patients because of the difficulties of their daily life since 2003 and it represents about 50% of the cases of psychiatrics disorders. This may make it an important issue to use antidepressant drugs in many of those patients

Iraqi Children with Acute Bacterial Meningitis... Who May Need Ventilatory Support?

Muhi Kadhem Al-Janabi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2008, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 100-105

Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) is one of the most potentially serious infections occurring in infants and older children. Indications for PICU admission are shock, markedly elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), coma, and refractory seizures (1).
This cross sectional study enrolled children 2 months-12 years of age presented with (ABM) who were admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital (CWTH) -Medical City- Baghdad, including those who needed Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICUs) admission in CWTH Unit and Surgical Specialty Hospital (SSH) Unit in the period from the 1st of Feb 2004 to the 1st of Feb 2006. The diagnostic inclusion criteria of (ABM) were clinical symptoms and signs of meningitis plus a CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis with a CSF cells count of more than 5 cells/mm3 (1). Data included history, clinical examination, investigations, complications, PICU management, and outcome. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 13.0 computer facility, Chi-square test and T test were used when needed and a P.value < 0.05 was considered significant.
In the present study (ABM) in children 2 months -12 years constituted 7% of cases admitted to PICUs. The majority of cases (77.2%) were below 2 years of age. The mean age of children with (ABM) was 18.3+6.80 months. The PICU cases of (ABM) differed from the neurological ward cases in their more acute onset, higher body temperature, higher peripheral WBCC, lower CSF glucose, and higher CSF cell count, higher CSF protein, lower serum calcium and longer duration of stay and all these characteristics showed highly significant differences The case fatality rate of children with (ABM) is 13.3%.
The study concluded the need for PICU admission in children with (ABM) with acute onset, higher body temperature, higher peripheral WBCC, lower CSF glucose, and higher CSF cell count, higher CSF protein, lower serum calcium, and recommended laboratory and PICU service expansion

A Comparative Study of the Frequency of Occurrence of Genetic Skeletal Disorders in Iraq before and after the Second Gulf War, 1991

Bassam Musa Sadik; Selma A.H. Al-Taha

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2007, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 141-146

Genetic skeletal abnormalities are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders frequently presenting with disproportionate short stature.
To give an idea about the frequency of genetic skeletal abnormalities, and to find out whether these disorders are really increasing in the last 16 years or not.
During the period extending from (Jan, 1st 2003-April, 1st 2007), all cases of genetic skeletal disorders referred to the Genetic Counseling Clinic, Medical City – Baghdad who were born after 1991 were included in this study as the post-war group; the pre-war group, included all cases of skeletal disorders referred prior to 1991 (Jan., 1st 1987-Jan., 1st 1990). The demographic parameters, family history of the disease plus the parental consanguinity were studied.
The post-war group constituted 3.199% while the pre-war group constituted 2.815%. Both groups had a comparative age range. AR disorders constituted 39.75% of the post-war group and 40% in the pre-war group; AD disorders come next in both groups (37.3% vs. 33.8%) respectively. There is a noticeable increase in the occurrence of new mutations of AD disorders in the post-war group.
Genetic skeletal dysplaisas are not uncommon disorders; their incidence seems to be truly increasing

Clinical Profile and OutComeOf Respiratory Failure In Iraqi Children

Muhi Al-Janabi

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2006, Volume 5, Issue 2, Pages 132-137

The frequency of acute respiratory failure is higher in infants and young children than in adults.Acute
respiratory failure remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality for children .
One hundred and twenty children under the age of 15 years presented with respiratory failure and
admitted to RICU in Children Welfare Teaching Hospital and Surgical Specialty Hospital in Medical
City - Baghdad in the period from the 1st of May -2003 to the 30th of June 2005 were enrolled in a
descriptive study.
Seventy nine (65.83%) cases were males and 41 (34.17%) were females. Male / female ratio was
1.93:1.The mean age was 30.21 months, 35 (29.16%) cases were neonates. Sixty eight (56.7%) cases
were from urban areas and 52 (43.3%) were from rural areas. Seventy eight (65%) children were
admitted for medical diseases and 42 (35%) were admitted for surgical problems. The most common
medical causes were respiratory (50%) followed by neurological (37. 17%).The most common
respiratory cases were bronchiolitis (28.2%) and most common neurological cases were Guillain- Barre
Syndrome (58.6%).The majority (90.47%) of surgical cases were admitted post-operatively. The
average duration of stay in RICU was 9.71 days. Fifty three patients (44.17%) survived and 67
(55.83%) died.
The most common age group admitted to RICU is infancy, medical cases are more commonly admitted
than surgical cases, the most common medical causes of admission are respiratory followed by
neurological causes, the most common respiratory cause of admission is acute bronchiolitis.

HLA Antigens Among Iraqi Muslims Arabs And Kurds

Batool M. Mahdi; Khalida M. Al-Moussawy; Abdul Wahab A.R. Al-Shaikhly; hiah; Ali H. Ad

Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal, 2006, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 94-97

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HLA system is a relevant tool in population genetics analysis. From the genetic point of view, the HLA system is of general interest because of the extreme polymorphism of all known HLA loci. The allele and haplotype frequencies have a wide diversity among human population and differ in geographically and racially among populations. Iraq had a high percentage of Muslims people that distributed in two groups (Arab and Kurd). These groups are ancient populations and affected by many settlement in many centuries ago. These ancient settlements had left marks on the genetic structure of the modern Iraqi populations. The later immigrations to other countries were high in later years. The aim of study is to estimate the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) alleles in Iraqi Arab Muslims and Kurd Muslims and determine the genetic differences between them. METHODS: A total of unrelated 1400 Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and 705 Kurd Muslims (KM) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine, were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. RESULTS: The phenotypes of HLA typing of Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and Kurd Muslims (KM) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Regarding HLA class I (A and Cw loci), there was a significant differences between these groups. Lasly, there was no significant difference between them in HLA-B. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to their inhabitants different area in Iraq, and also due to their different origin as Arab and Kurd races with mild differences due to outbreeding and migration. The effects of invaders and settlements from out side the country and intermixing with them may play an important role in these differences