Prevalence of Candida Species and Oral Candidiasis during Menstrual Cycle in a Sample of Women in Baghdad City
Iraqi Postgraduate Medical Journal,
2009, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 73-78
Menstrual cycle define and reflect the women internal endocrine environment. Ovarian hormones, estrogens and progesterone, are not secreted in constant amounts throughout the cycle. Estrogen and progesterone have been shown to inhibit aspects of both innate and acquired immunity at the systemic or local level furthermore they have been shown to influence on maturation and keratinization of oral mucosa. So there may be possible influence of the menstrual cycle on the adherence of Candida to human oral epithelial cells, and may implicate hormonal factors in the aetiology of oral Candidiasis.
The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Candida albicans and other different Candida species in the oral cavity during different periods of menstrual cycle.
One hundred and seventy six oral swabs were taken from 44 females’ patients attending dental clinic during the period from May to September2007 with age range 14-49 years old at different periods of menstrual cycle on days 5, 13, 22 and 28, which represent menstrual phase, ovulatory phase, mid-luteal phase and premenstrual phase respectively.
Swabs were taken from the tongue for isolation of Candida species. The swabs were inoculated on Sabouraud’s glucose agar incubated at 37º for 72 hours; Candida species were identified by gram stain method, germ tube method and fermentation of sugar set.
The prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity at 5th, 13th, 22nd and 28th days of menstrual cycle were 31.8%, 22.7%, 40.9% and 25% respectively. The study shows that the prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity was non-significantly higher at 22nd day of menstrual cycle.
There was no significant influence of menstrual cycle on the prevalence of Candida in the oral cavity during different periods.
The prevalence of Candida albicans was higher during different periods of menstrual cycle in comparison to Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis
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